Kitchener School of Mededicine, Sudan, 1948-1958, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery; Queen’s College, University of St Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom, 1959-1961, Doctor of Philosophy Physiology; University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford University, 6162. Special Advisor to the Regional Director, World Health Organization Regional Office(s) for the Eastern Mediterranean since 1991. Director of Programme Management, World Health Organization, Egypt, 1984-1991. Director, Health Manpower Development, 1982-1984, Regional Advisor in Health Personnel Education, 1974-1982, World Health Organization, Egypt. Dean & Deputy Vice Chancellor, Fey of Medical, University of Khartoum, Sudan, 1971-1974. Professor & Head of Department of Physiology, 1967-1974, Senior Lecturer in Physiology, 1962-1967, Fey of Medical, University of Khartoum.